How to use this resource: First, please review the vocabulary list and understand the meanings of the words. Then, please read the article provided. Refer back to the vocabulary list if you do not remember the meanings of some words.
By reviewing the vocabulary words over and over, they will begin to 'stick' in your memory and you will be able to use them when you speak.
Protests and deaths in Egypt:
Recently the president of Egypt was ousted (removed from power) by Egypt's military. The military claimed that this president - Morsi - was running the country terribly.
In the West, many leaders were happy that Morsi was removed from power. He belongs to a group called The Muslim Brotherhood. This group is felt to be a very extreme Islamic organization. Yet, Morsi had been elected by the Egyptian people.
Now supporters of Morsi are engaged in a peaceful protest, and over the weekend many seem to have been killed by the new military government.
Vocabulary to help you understand the article:
turmoil - there is social turmoil when there is a situation which is not peaceful. Turmoil would be the opposite of peaceful. If there is turmoil, there is trouble.
a protest - when a group of people get together to express the fact that they are unhappy or upset about a situation.
to defy someone or something - to refuse to do what someone or some group has told you to do.
a removal threat - a threat is when someone makes another person feel that he is in danger. Here the military is threatening to remove the protesters by using force.
to be ousted - to be kicked out of office.
a sit-in - this is a type of protest where the people just merely sit down and refuse to move.
a clash - this is when two groups meet each other violently.
pro-Morsi - if a person is 'pro' something, he/she is for something (approves of something); if you are 'anti' something you are against it (you disapprove of it)
to back down - to stop fighting and to give up.
to be reinstated - to be put back in power.
to disperse - to disperse a group is to break the group up.
to oust - to get rid of; to kick out
to condemn s/t - to say something is wrong
tyranny - this is when one person or group dominates the government and violates the rights of the people.
a coup - this is when the military takes control of the government violently
barricades - these are structures set up to block a road.
morale - please don't confuse this word with 'moral.' If you are a moral person, you are a good person. (Moral is pronounced: MORE ul). If you have or a group has good morale (pronounced: more AL), that means you are in good spirits or optimistic and enthusiastic. If a crowd has good morale, they are happy and enthusiastic. Morale is a noun, moral is an adjective.
to carry out s/t - to do something.
a just cause - a 'cause' can mean something that you do or a group does to try to make the world better. So a 'just cause' is a cause which is supported by the concept of justice. i.e. I think I am going to donate money to a homeless shelter - ending homelessness is a good cause. i.e. Even though we all oppose war, most Americans felt that fighting in World War II was a just cause, sine the USA was attacked.
the death toll - the number of people who died.
thugs - criminals; a thug is usually someone young and male who looks uneducated and aggressive.
plain-clothed police - police dressed in normal clothes.
come to your senses - if someone tells you to come to your sense, he/she is telling you to accept reality. Basically the person is saying: "Don't be stupid!"
lawsuits - legal cover - it looks as if some people in that area went to a court and filed legal papers to have the protesters removed. Therefore the military is using this as an excuse (legal cover) to remove the protesters.
to deny - to say that something is not true.
live rounds - real bullets. Bullets are the things fired from guns.
tear gas - a type of gas that causes people to experience extreme pain in their eyes.
severity - the degree to which something is forceful. Extremely severe means that something as very forceful.
an interim government - a temporary government. A government which will be replaced by another one.
excessive - too much
to extend the barricades - to push the barricades out farther
medics - doctors or people trained in basic medical techniques
live fire - real bullets shot by real people at real people
snipers - military guys who hide on roofs or in tress and shoot at people
a confrontation - when two people or groups meet each other in anger.
to unfold - to happen.
militants - people who believe that violence is ok to accomplish what they want.
a mandate - a order; in this case, an order from the people to the government. So after the military kicked Morsi out fo office, they encouraged people who hated Morsi to 'take to the streets' (go out into the streets) and protest. the military felt this would show that they had a 'mandate' to kick out Morsi.
to flood an area - when people flood an area, they fill the area quickly.
remanded in custody - held by the police; kept in a prison cell by the police.
premeditated - if you commit premeditated murder, that means you thought about the murder ahead of time. Premeditated means that someone thought about something before doing it - the person did not do something due to his immediate emotions.
alleged - apparent; if someone is an alleged criminal, it is being said that he is the criminal, but this hasn't been proved yet.
to plot something - to develop a plan to do something (usually illegal).
to conspire with - to work (illegally) with others